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3 December 25, 2017

Special Articles: Commentary

1. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
Intellectual Phishing, Hidden Conflicts of Interest and Hidden Data: New Risks of Preprints

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2017, 4(3): 136-146.

Preprints were originally destined to put forward a first version of a version of a paper that was prepared, as best and complete as possible, by the authors, but for which they wanted intellectual input from the community prior to submission to a regular peer reviewed journal. Although arXiv has led the way with physics and mathematics, bioRxiv became popular for the biological sciences. Since the beginning of 2016, after a preprint promotional campaign by ASAPbio, the popularity of preprints has been increasing, as has the number of preprint servers. Three fairly recent (March and May of 2017) preprints published in bioRxiv test the limits and uses of preprints, and bring with them a whole set of ethical questions. The three reprints were published primarily by members of the publishing elite, leaders of ethical bodies and think tanks aiming to establish new rules or guidelines, to address several issues in research integrity and ethics. However, in at least two cases, the texts are in a fairly crude state of intellectual development, and the authors are explicitly using bioRxiv to “fish” for ideas from peers and the public. It is unclear how any individual / group who contributes intellectually to such preprints will be acknowledged, if at all, and the risks of ghost authorship exist with this new exploratory model of preprints. In addition, the use of preprints to accommodate the intellectual ideas of others, while taking all the credit, may be a new form of academic scam in publishing, “intellectual phishing.” Risks to the integrity of publishing are already high, and if preprints are seen as being abused in any way, then this may reduce trust in this new academic model. The risk is compounded by the discovery of multiple hidden conflicts of interest in these and one other preprint.

2. Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva
Concerns with the Winnower and Laura and John Arnold Foundation Reproducibility Essay Contest

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2017, 4(3): 147-155.

On April 26, 2016, an announcement was made for an essay contest to be published in and by The Winnower (https://thewinnower.com), a low-cost open access journal. The contest, which was financially sponsored by the Laura and John Arnold Foundation (LJAF; http://www.arnoldfoundation.org), aimed to find an answer to the question “How do we ensure that research is reproducible?” In a bid to tackle the reproducibility crisis in science, the contest set out its objectives, as well as the rules for contestants, including a deadline for submission, and a range of word limits (750-1500). As for the submission to a journal, it was expected that all contestants would abide by the rules to be valid contestants. After a delay in releasing the results, an examination of the entries revealed that 12/21 of the essays did not abide by the contestant’s rules, and thus, to be fair, should have been disqualified, as equally as a submitted paper that does not abide by the rules of submission to a journal is equally rejected, or retracted, if the breach of rules is known post-publication. A request was sent to the LJAF and The Winnower CEO, Joshua (Josh) Nicholson, for a more formal explanation and greater transparency. The acceptance of the winning essays, each of which received a $US 500 cash prize, was summarized by a single sentence. This case study examines how The Winnower and the LJAF mismanaged that contest, how the winners remained winners despite breaking the basic rules of the contest, and how no public transparency was offered with respect to contest mishandling, the make-up of the panel of judges, or the qualifications of these judges. Reproducibility begins with trust, accountability and openness, qualities that were not displayed, in this case, by the LJAF and The Winnower.

Articles and Statements

3. Hellen Kailiti, Nan Adams
Women in the C-Suite: Do They Have the Globe Enthralled?

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2017, 4(3): 156-167.

Women have historically showed outstanding capability in leadership roles in varying societal spheres and periods across the globe. Although grossly underrepresented in leadership, those who take up the positions bring to the exercise of leadership an arsenal of strengths, which increasingly, are meant to benefit the entities they lead on local, national, and global levels. In the run-up to the Fourth World Women Conference held in Beijing in 1995, there was much hype about the issues of equity, equality and women representation. During the conference, the concepts of equity and equality, in relation to gender were expansively discussed. While the conference ultimately called for equal opportunities and equal representation, an examination of the several sectors in different countries revealed that the percentage of women in the C-Suite is still very low. Can one say that women are discriminated against or do they discriminate themselves? Do they get technically disqualified because they are women? This analysis focuses on the status of women leadership in politics, education, health and religion. While these are not the only sectors where women hardly get to the top management, they mirror the status quo in the other sectors. The few women at the top also face certain challenges, including the fact that they cannot make important decisions concerning their sectors without consultation. Those who do so are considered to be acting like ‘men’. Although affirmative action is adhered to in many sectors, in most cases, women do not aggressively seek for leadership positions.

4. Victoria Tkachenko, Vitaliia Prymakova
Language Education in Multicultural Dimension

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2017, 4(3): 168-171.

This article highlights a key trend of pluralistic school of language education in Ukraine. The questions of influence factor on: multicultural school language education, the development of an individual student, the concept of multicultural education and the processes of learning Ukrainian and foreign languages in the content of multicultural education. This paper seeks to determine the means and methods that provide quality multicultural education in national school. It also explores the necessity of encouraging students to study several languages and the need to use information technology. Besides, the prospects of multicultural language education in Ukraine have been established in this article. Thus, school education must meet the requirements of society, especially as Ukraine develops with an expansion of international contacts. To ensure the successful cooperation of Ukraine with other countries, students should be equipped with quality knowledge of foreign languages to guarantee their linguistic formation.

5. Evgeniya V. Vidishcheva, Galina D. Bryukhanova
Analyses of the Sustainable Tourism Development Factors: the Example of Sochi-City

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2017, 4(3): 172-180.

The concept of sustainability is the leading trend of modern world development. This term is found in almost all government programs and strategies. Countries dependent on tourism revenues are extremely interested in sustainable development. This concept allows to minimize their environmental impact and to maximize the overall socio-economic benefits for tourist destinations. Formation and implementation of sustainability programs are long-term and expensive processes, which are influenced by factors of internal and external environment. The aim of this article is to define the role of sustainability in the tourism industry and to reveal the major factors that influence on the process. The objectives of this paper are: (i) to study theoretical base of the sustainability concept, (ii) to analyze current situation in the industry and (iii) to reveal the main factors of Sustainability tourism from Sochi-City.

6. Grace Yusuf, Joel Abah, Nancy Oluchi Iwegbunam
Technology and Power Play in the International System: A Study of the 20th and 21st Centuries

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2017, 4(3): 181-187.

Globalization has led to a profound diffusion of technological innovations among State and Non-state actors. This has a resultant impact on the arrangement of the distribution of power in the International System. History captures continuous transition in the distribution of power between states in the International System; from a multi-polar system during the first and Second World War, to the bipolar system of the cold war and the uni-polar system that emerged in the aftermath of the cold war. The emergence of new actors in the international system and the change in technological nature and application is ushering in a new era of ‘Non-polarity’ in the International System. The aim of this paper is to consider the evolving dynamics of the distribution of power in the International System while considering the roles technology has to play. The paper relays the conceptualization of basic terms, and then applies the ‘Balance of Power theory’ as its theoretical thrust. Finally, it expands on the role of technology in the distribution of power in the International System and what it entails for the future.

7. Solomon Kofi Amoah, Anthony Ayim, Danladi Abah, Kobina Abaka Ansah
Extremist Radicalism and Terrorist Inroads in West Africa: Understanding the Threat

Journal of Advocacy, Research and Education, 2017, 4(3): 188-194.

While research has not yet established the regional consequences of terrorism, its immediate effects on states that have been hit (i.e. Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso and Nigeria), and the spill over effects in neighbouring countries cannot be discounted. This paper analyses the challenge of violent extremism in Africa based on existing evidence from across the West African sub- region. It pays particular attention to the recruitment of young people in Africa into extremist causes on the continent and beyond and proffers measures for their curtailment. The paper argues that terrorism in contemporary Africa undermines democratization, good governance, peace and security and regional development. It also recommends three-pronged strategies for addressing the miasma of extremist radicalism and its associated violence in West Africa, namely, governance, development and security reforms. While it may be difficult to absolutely curtail the activities of terrorist organizations in West Africa. Countries with minimal vulnerabilities like Ghana, Sierra Leone, Liberia and others should intensify efforts towards increased border and cyber security surveillance, sustained de-radicalization programmes and youth empowerment programmes to curb unemployment in earnest.

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